LEGEND: The slave-trade was a powerful force that disrupted African civilization worldwide. However, we see that history has preserved for
us evidence of the nature of Africans before slavery. In 4th MBC Naqada I in Egypt [1],  the 3rd MBC Nubia and Egypt [2], late 3rd MBC Ur III 
of Mesopotamia [3], late 3rd MBC Mohenjo Daro in the Indus Valley [4], 15th century AD Morocco [6], and the middle of the 1st MBC Etrusca 
that where intellectually involved board games were played were African populations [1a, b; 2a, b; 3a, b; 4a, b; 7a, b, c]. The oldest known 
representation of a board, senet, game harkens back to Naqada I in Egypt 5500 years ago [1]. It arrested the attention of great leaders of 
people as Queen Nefertari herself is shown playing senet [5] and Achilles, portrayed as African, the great hero of Homer’s Iliad and the 
Odyessy himself is shown on an urn playing what some call Owari [pic. 7]. There was a broad variety of games as dice were used 5000 
years ago in Nubia [2]; nearly 5000 years ago in Mesopotamia [3]; and played 5000 years ago in the Indus Valley which had at the time an 
African population as pictures 4a and b show. From childern [8, 11], to women [5, 6, 9], men, the community at large [10, 11, 13] and the 
leaders themselves [5, 6, 7, 13], and across the ocean as well in even Barbados [12] the intellectual pursuit that preceded slavery and
endured it has, as part 1 explores, likely given birth to chess as an African legacy to the world [consider 6 and its background: 1 - 7]. 
Finally, that board games spread worldwide from Africa might be considered in exploring the links below showing that along with board 
games worldwide also are found 1. pyramids, 2. common burials, 3. common ships, 4. combs, and 5. common rock art...art, art history, Paul Marc Washington, paleoneolithic@yahoo.com

While dug-out canoes were humankind's first ships, the sewed-plank ships began appearing in North Africa and Egypt near 6500 BC and soon became worldwide - likely with African ship-builders and crews in the earliest millennium.

Do the analogies in the pages below with their shared cultural toolkit reveal the existence of a single one worldwide culture with a seemingly common point of origin that through the demic movement of a people (like pursed-fingers parting) that became dispersed worldwide?

1) God created the heavens and earth: paleolithic to today: click.
2) Shamanism: paleolithic to today: click.
3) First cloth in world through neolithic spindles, whorls: Click.
4) Diadems as first crowns 25,000 years ago through historic times: click.
5) Rock art 1 - from 25,000 years ago until today: click.
6) Rock art 2 - red and black human figures in Africa and Eurasia: click.
7) Common hair care products – the comb: click.
8) Pyramids: click.
9) Neolithic pottery burials: click.
10) Board games part 1: click.
11) Board games part 2: click.
12) The dug-out canoe: click.
13) The plank boat: click.
14) The Adze: click.
15) 11 points of contact in ancient AfroEurasia: click.