The nature of history is that it is a 
record of events and places of historical
times. By definition, then, it’s concern does
not encompass events of prehistory. And where prehistory
is concerned, one will, I believe, find that the indigenous
peoples variously called Northern European [15], La Tene
[14], proto-Scandinavian ( [8], god Thor, Tyr) were African
(to-be-defined). From the Russian Steppes, the Vikings-to-
be did not have a seafaring history or skill-set. Their ships,
to the contrary, carry-on the form and building technique of 
ships arising in the Sudan [2] of 7,000 BC. None the less, 
this web page is not about the Vikings, per se, but about ancient people originating in Africa with over-
flow to nearby lands, who shared some features of culture together; and who, as a group, populated Europe 
from one end to the next. The whole of the ancient world might more properly be called Ancient Africa. 
The following looks at some features found in the African-Mediterranean sphere taken to Europe. 
DOUBLE-SPIRAL GRAVE MOTIF: 1600 BC, Mycenae [25]; and 3200 BC, Ireland [B] [26].
        BLACK-FIRED TOP RED AND BLACK WARE: 3800 BC, in Naqada I, Egypt [22]; and 5000 BC 
to 1500 BC, Finland [23].
        STILT-RAISED MARSH-HOMES: 3000 BC, Mesopotamia [20]; 1400 BC, Punt, time of Hatshepsut,
[18]. Such homes were found in 18th century Berne, Switzerland [19]; and still found throughout Africa [21].
       FOUR-SPOKED CHARIOT: A four-spoke chariot wheel in Mycenae of 1500 BC [9] & 400 years before the Doric invasion from the Steppes 
and Steppe inhabitation of Mycenae.  Also at 1500 BC in southern Sweden in the city of Skane and town of Kivik is found a famous type of grave 
well-known from Bronze Age Mycenae - the Grave Circle of kings; in Sweden called Kungagraven - king’s grave. Chariot riders use the 4-spoked wheel [10].
        HIGH, DOUBLE-PROWED SEWED PLANK BOAT: Hundreds of such boats are found in Saharan rock art. From the early date of 7000 BC rock 
engravings in the Sahara showed high, double-prowed, sewed plank boats [2] navigated as much as by women and young boys [21] as by men. At 400 BC, 
the double-prowed boat [3], typical of that used by the Vikings, was found in rock engravings in Denmark long before the arrival of the Steppe population. 
At 3400 BC during Naqada II in Egypt such a ship is found on painted grave pottery [11].
       HIEROGLYPHICS: The southern populations that colonized Europe were from a cultural sphere where all shared much in common. In this sentence we’ll 
not identify their  ethnicity but note that Egyptians established Minoa, shown in both places using the same boats & hieroglyphics [24] but earlier in Egypt.
       FILED TEETH: From the Viking Age, 800 AD - 1050 AD, two dozen men were found in graves in Sweden and Denmark with intentionally filed teeth. Such was 
the case with a grave site in Sweden’s Kopparsvik grave [16] (In: Caroline Arcini, The Vikings bear their filed teeth, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 
Issue of 23 June 2005). Filed teeth are an African trait most recently found in slave graves in New York; and four among 120 Africans at Campeche, South 
Mexico (See: John Noble Wilford, At Burial Site, Teeth Tell Tale of Slavery, New York Times,  January 2006). The writer, Clyde Winters, notes: “The Danish 
Vikings were Blacks according to David MacRitchie, in Ancient and Modern Britons (Volume 1): ‘Here there is perfect unanimity. The 'cum nigris gentibus' of 
the Annals, and Powel's ’blacke armie’ , are at one.” Well known by the name of “Eric the Black” a Viking among many widely considered African.
       BULLHORNED CROWN AND HELMET: The earliest attested horned crowns worn in history harken back to 7000 BC in the Sudan and are worn, it will
surprise, by a woman [12]. From 2254 BC - 2218 BC and the first dynasty of Akkad is the African-featured (not noted in this stele) Naram Sin wearing a bull-
horn crown [13]. From ~2570 BC in Lagash of Mesopotamia is the clearly African-featured god, Enlil, the Bull of Heaven [4]. Sweden [5]: Viking bullhorn helmet.
       AFRICAN-FEATURED POPULATIONS IN EGYPT, MYCENAE, SCANDINAVIA AND NORTH EUROPE: By using African I refer to appearance, not geography 
and omit color: in addition to negritoes and steatophygous females and those Africans with straight hair (reflecting mixed ancestry), Africans are individuals 
with some combination of a round nose and mouth fuller than and hair woolier than 98% of whites and Asians. Africans often have “grape cluster” hair. White, 
or Steppic, populations largely entered the Near East, Mediterranean, and Europe after 2100 BC and until the Middle Ages and later. From 1600 BC in Mycenae 
was the 1st and African Circe and Odysseus [1]; an African bowman in [9] of Mycenae, 1600 BC. Grape cluster hair: 3100 BC, Egypt, Narmer Palette [6];
seen worn in Dynasty 5 ~2300 BC by Ptah Hotep [7] - the writer to whom the words of Jesus are often traced; in 800 AD, the Scandinavian god Thor, or Tyr [8], 
is shown with grape cluster hair which stands to reason with Scandinavia receiving populations from North African regions. From 800 BC and Bern, West 
Switzerland is a mulatto-looking Hydria of the African La Tene Period [14]. And most remarkable of all, from 1906, an African woman [15] in Greeland (see [G] 
on map. Greenland is an island accessible only by watercraft. Whites did not discover Greenland until the early 19th century. Her’s is African Viking ancestry.  art, art history, Paul Marc Washington,
R0a DNA evidence shows indigenous African population replaced only centuries ago by modern Danes: click.

Vikings Part I.