While maps (3) depict modern Europeans as descending from Paleolithic Europeans [concentric circles A, B, C, in(1)], populations worldwide & in Eurasia (1) arose from Af-rica (5). Populations labelled European (3) do not depict the African origins (5) and phenotype of those then Eur-opeans (1). Modern Europeans (2, 3) migrating to today’s Western and Southern Europe, the Middle East, & North Africa, trace their origins, as shown in Indo-European language map (2) and migration map (4) primarily from the 1st millennium BC to the Middle Ages. Note the pre-Germanic (Before) population of Europe in (1) and the post-Germanic population of Europe (After) in ,e.g., (3).

From Science, we read: “The Dmanisi of 1.8 million years ago are the first hominids with clearly ‘African’ features found outside that continent – and they used only a simple stone tool kit, called Oldowan tools, to accom-plish their journey. ‘They look African,’ (A0 above) says archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef of Harvard University, who has visited Dmanisi (A1 above) several times. ‘I would give [Dmanisi] the credence of being the oldest known site in Eurasia with Oldowan stone tools.’ … Enthused University of Rome paleoanthropologist Giorgio Manzi claimed: ‘This is the missing link between Africa, Europe, and Asia!’” In: Michael Balter, A Glimpse of Humans’ First Journey Out of Africa, Science, 288, pp. 948 – 950, Issue of 12 May 2000. Not from but after Dmanisi came Homo sapiens.Homo sapiens appears to have colonized all of Africa about 150 millennia ago, moved out of Africa some 80 millennia ago, and spread across Eurasia and to Australia before 40 millennia ago. Migration to the Americas took place about 20 to 15 millennia ago, and by 1 millennium ago, all the Pacific Islands were colonized. Later population movements notably include the Neolithic revolution and Indo-European (I-E) expansion, part of which emerges is in the earliest historic records.Before the modern era, migrations are often confusing in the written record because the history is written by societies on the periphery of the migrating peoples or by their des-cendants who have given up the nomadic way of life. This is true of the era that follows the collapse of classical civilization in Europe & the collapse of the Early Medieval Great Migrations, & the related Turkic expansion. IF I-E population of Europe from the Steppes is phase I, phase II are post-Medieval migrations from Europe to Africa & N. & S. America, & the Far East.

I’d say the concept of “Classical Europe” does not account for the movement of the Proto-Italic segment of Steppic peoples (PISP) into the nation-states of the Roman Republic (the states were African) characterizing Italy before Caesar’s Roman Empire. A better definition of Classical Europe is: “African settlement areas predating the Migration Period of Indo-Europeans (2    ) from the Russian Steppes into mainland Europe 500 AD to 1500 AD; but especially predating the centuries leading to the ~ 800 BC incursion of the PISP Julius Caesar would later emerge from with origination in the Russian Steppes.”
..art, art history, Paul Marc Washington, paleoneolithic@yahoo.com