Neck and leg rings of 
both gold and bronze are 
found in Africa and Eurasia 
today [1 – 10] and from prehistoric 
times [11 – 18]. Where did the tradition of 
neck-stretching and decorative jewelry worn by 
women practising this custom arise and spread? And did  language, wheat & barley accompany the spread of this from Sub-Saharan Africa into Eurasia?
Let’s investigate this.  In deciphering cunieform script, Rawlinson used the Saharan African  language of the Manding and found relationships between
the two with  Dravidian spoken in the Indian state of Orissa (5). This hints at a  Neolithic African vector of people and culture into India. (See: Dr. Clyde 
Winters: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/elam2.htm).  

Note the elongated African neck stretched with gold rings accompanied  by a base neck plate and sometimes also very thick rings (1, 2, 9)  and  use of 
leg rings (9). Note Burmese women with African features and other admixtures (3, 4, 5, 6) wearing the same ensemble; and women with “wholly” Asian 
features (7, 8, 10) with that ensemble; and leg rings  identical to the African (10). A combination of movement and borrowing?  Neolithic culture and 
language accompanied the spread of wheat and  barley. I suggest that the reason for some combination in the form of decorative jewelry and stretched 
necks seen here in Burma,  Thailand, and India is due to the spread of these by a movement of people from Africa into the Indus Valley. Evaluate the 
following:  “Early Indus agriculture produced massive samples of seeds and grains  which so far are identified as several varieties of wheat and barley ... 
Here too, cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats are reported.” In:  Bridgette and Raymond Allchin, The rise of civilization in India and  Pakistan, 
(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982), p. 154.  The language, wheat, barley, and goats were in use in Sub-Saharan Neolithic African. I suggest 
these people carried that and jewelry East.

COMMON JEWELRY IN AFRICAN AND EURASIAN NEOLITIC AND BRONZE AGE: In the 2nd millennium BC, phenotypically African dancing girls in 
bronze [11, India] and gilted gold [18, Turkey] are virtually identical. Neck rings found today [1 – 10] are also found in the prehistoric phenotypically 
African culture in the Sudan [12, 4500 BC] and the Indus Valley [13, 2600 BC]. The bronze and gold leg bands of today [9, 10] are also found in Anatolia 
[18, 2000 BC]. And multiple ringed wrist bands of today [e.g. 4] are found prehistorically [18] 4000  years ago. African populations in ancient Europe had 
bronze and gold bands found in many of today’s countries including Germany [14], Hungary [15], Slovakia [16], Bulgaria [17], and Turkey [18]. The paleo-
jewelry used throughout the ancient African world is still with us on Fashion Avenue today and worn by virtually every female either regularly or at some
time during her life. The propagation of this culture has provided countiess jobs, formed the cornerstone of industries, helps keep the economuy afloat, 
and enables modern society to maintain a good feeling about itself as its members adorn themselves in beauty and attend to societal social functions.,art, art history, Paul Marc Washington, paleoneolithic@yahoo.com