PRESENTED: Possible pre-Western, 
related prehistoric populations 
including Sumerians, proto-Kurds, and 
proto-Hebrews in Mesopotamia, Turkey,
Iran, and Syria during the Halaf, Ubaid, 
Uruk, and Early Bronze Age periods.

KEY TERMS: a] King Idrimi, pic. [8]
1600 BC. Idrimi was one of the sons of the 
royal house of Aleppo in Syria – home of 
Canaanite nomads. Idrimi ruled an iron-
using, prosperous kingdom in Alalakh in 
Mukish; i.e. the Amuq Valley vacillating in 
ownership between Turkey and Syria since 
pre-history. At some sites, pic. [8] is shown
with a down-turned mouth, large, vacant eyes,
and a beardless, stern face; b] Halaf, Ubaid, 
Uruk: uniform prehistoric, pottery-making 
cultures spanning Syria, Iran, Mesopotamia, 
and Turkey, 6000 – 3700 BC. 

GEOGRAPHY: From the 7M, the golden 
“square” (the “golden square” is my 
construction) contains some of the most 
significant early civilizations with farming
settlements in the 7M: Catal Huyuk, 
adjacent Mukish (Amuq Valley; Alalakh), 
Tell Kurdu, Tell Judaideh, and, in north-
easterm Syria, the nearby Aleppo.

FIGURINE 4-6: Statuettes with similarly 
deformed heads are seen in a 6M
statuette from Eridu [4], a lovely 6M 
figurine from Hacilar, Turkey [5], and 
[6] a figurine from in or near Aleppo, 
Syria which resembles 6M figurine from
Mesopotamia. 7 and 8 appear Negrid-
African in resemblance - likely Negrito.

POINT OF INTEREST: The paired cultures
of Mesopotamia (1:4), Turkey (2:5), and 
Syria (3:6) reveal that in the golden 
square both Tell Kurdu and Tell Judaideh,
with ties to modern Kurds and Hebrew, 
border each other and the Mukish of 
Idrimi along with the biblical Canannites -
and from the Canaanites, modern religion.

POPULATION?: After completing his 
famous excavations at the Royal Cemetary of Ur, Leonard Woolley excavated the golden square. Excavators continuing work in the golden square begun by Woolley have spoken 
of the homogenous population in the pre-Western lands: a] Mesopotamia and Turkey: “The presence of painted Mesopotamia-related 
Ubaid-like wares at Tell Kurdu implies the presence of colonial enclaves just as in the subsequent Uruk Period.” b] Mesopotamia 
and Aleppo in Syria: Dr. Joan Oates states that there was “… probably a Sumerian colony on the Euphrates east of Aleppo, [whose 
pottery, seals, and bricks used in building constructions] are indistinguishable from examples from Uruk in Sumer.”[1]
, Paul Marc Washington,